Brine is a solution of salt (usually sodium chloride) in water. In different contexts, brine may refer to salt solutions ranging from about 3.5% (a typical concentration of seawater, or the lower end of solutions used for brining foods) up to about 26% (a typical saturated solution, depending on temperature). Other levels of concentration are called in different names:
|H2O salinity based on dissolved salts|
|Fresh water||Brackish water||Saline water||Brine|
|< 0.05%||0.05–3%||3–5%||> 5%|
It is held that 0 °F (−17.78 °C) was initially set as the zero point in the Fahrenheit temperature scale, as it was the coldest temperature that Daniel G. Fahrenheit could reliably reproduce by freezing brine.
|NaCl, wt%||Freezing point (°C)||Density[lower-alpha 1] (g/cm3)||Refractive index[lower-alpha 2] at 589 nm||Viscosity[lower-alpha 3] (cP )|
At 100 °C (373.15 K, 212 °F), saturated sodium chloride brine is about 28% salt by weight i.e. 39.12 g salt dissolves in 100 mL of water at 100 °C. At 0 °C (273.15 K, 32 °F), brine can only hold about 26% salt.
The thermal conductivity of seawater (3.5% dissolved salt by weight) is 0.6 W/mK at 25 °C. The thermal conductivity decreases with increasing salinity and increases with increasing temperature; these graphs and online calculations plot thermal conductivity for varying salinity and temperature:
Electrolysis of brineEdit
- Main article: brine (refrigeration)
Brine is a common fluid used in large refrigeration installations for the transport of thermal energy from place to place. It is used because the addition of salt to water lowers the freezing temperature of the solution and the heat transport efficiency can be greatly enhanced for the comparatively low cost of the material. The lowest freezing point obtainable for NaCl brine is −21.1 °C (−6.0 °F) at 23.3wt% NaCl. This is called the eutectic point.
In colder temperatures, brine can be used to de-ice or reduce freezing temperatures on roads. Certain forms of road salt, such as magnesium chloride, have been banned in some jurisdictions because of their increased impact to road infrastructure such as concrete bridges, as well as roadside vegetation.
- Main article: Brine (food)
- Main article: Brine (hydrology)
- ↑ gwydir.demon.co.uk
- ↑ Script error
- ↑ CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 63rd Edition 1982-1983.
- ↑ web.mit.edu
- ↑ twt.mpei.ac.ru
- ↑ Script error
- ↑ webserver.dmt.upm.es
- ↑ Iowa Department of Transportation
- ↑ Performance and Impacts of Current Deicing and Anti-icing Products: User Perspective versus Experimental Data, by Fay, Volkening, Gallaway and Shi, Montana State University.